Probabilistic models of same-different and identification judgments are compared (within each paradigm) with regard to their sensitivity to perceptual dependence or the degree to which the underlying psychological dimensions are correlated. Three same-different judgment models are compared. One is a step function or decision bound model and the other two are probabilistic variants of a similarity model proposed by Shepard. Three types of identification models are compared: decision bound models, a probabilistic multidimensional scaling model, and probabilistic models based on the Shepard-Luce choice rule. The decision bound models were found to be most sensitive to perceptual dependence, especially when there is considerable distributional overlap. The same-different model based on the city-block metric and an exponential decay similarity function, and the corresponding identification model were found to be particularly insensitive to perceptual dependence. These results suggest that if a Shepard-type similarity function accurately describes behavior, then under typical experimental conditions it should be difficult to see the effects of perceptual dependence. This result provides strong support for a perceptual independence assumption when using these models. These theoretical results may also play an important role in studying different decision rules employed at different stages of identification training.
This article appears as:
Ennis, D.M. and Ashby, F.G. (1993). The relative sensitivities of same-different and identification judgment models to perceptual dependence. Psychometrika, 58(2), 257-279.
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The relative sensitivities of same-different and identification judgment models to perceptual dependence
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