Technical Reports

Technical Report: Drivers of Liking® for Multiple Segments

Technical Report: Drivers of Liking® for Multiple Segments

ABSTRACT When considering product differences that drive consumer liking, it is helpful to imagine a space described by sensory characteristics in which each product has a location. In this space a person’s ideal product may be found, so that if we understood this space we could predict the person’s degree of liking for each...

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Technical Report: Population Thresholds

Technical Report: Population Thresholds

ABSTRACT A surprising number of applied sensory problems can be classified as threshold problems. For example, the time after application when an air freshener can no longer be detected is a time threshold. Similarly, the moment at which an off-note can be detected in a food product is a threshold. This information can be...

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Technical Report: Multivariate Sensory Quality Control

Technical Report: Multivariate Sensory Quality Control

ABSTRACT A consumer product, such as a cookie, produces multidimensional sensory effects when it is eaten. In order to produce sensorially consistent cookies, it is necessary to develop and use methods that account for multidimensionality. For instance, a consumer may notice how dry or how hard a cookie is or how much moisture it...

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Technical Report: Models for the A-Not A Method

Technical Report: Models for the A-Not A Method

ABSTRACT The A-Not A method is a well-known discrimination method used in sensory analysis and signal detection. The method typically involves either paired or sequential presentation of two products; on each trial the subject decides whether the product presented is A or Not A (A-). A is a product familiar to the subject, sometimes...

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Technical Report: Thurstonian Models for Intensity Ratings

Technical Report: Thurstonian Models for Intensity Ratings

ABSTRACT Products and concepts are often evaluated on rating scales to quantify degree of liking, level of purchase interest, intensity of an attribute, degree of difference or level of agreement with a statement. Rating scales are constructed in many different ways, but usually involve options labeled with numbers, words or symbols. In some cases...

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Technical Report: Multivariate Preference Mapping

Technical Report: Multivariate Preference Mapping

ABSTRACT In our Spring 1998 newsletter, we discussed a method for the analysis of liking data. The goal of this method was to discover attributes that drive liking. The method, called probabilistic unfolding, displays products and ideals as distributions. Preference data can also be unfolded to provide insights into ideal product characteristics, and can...

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Technical Report: Molecular Mixture Models: Accounting for Synergy in Sweet Taste Mixtures

Technical Report: Molecular Mixture Models: Accounting for Synergy in Sweet Taste Mixtures

ABSTRACT The effects of mixtures on the chemical senses are complex and puzzling. One of these effects is called “synergy”. This term is used loosely to describe effects that cannot be explained by additivity of the components alone, and is used even more loosely to describe effects greater than “expected.” There is a lack...

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Technical Report: Models for Replicated Ratings

Technical Report: Models for Replicated Ratings

ABSTRACT A competitor has introduced a new fragrance for young females into a market that your company dominates with an existing fragrance. Since these fragrances are quite different according to your perfumers, you decide to test them among separate consumer samples to avoid effects introduced by testing the different fragrances on the same individuals....

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Technical Report: Thurstonian Scaling for Difference Tests

Technical Report: Thurstonian Scaling for Difference Tests

ABSTRACT Suppose that an ingredient supplier has changed a key ingredient used in the manufacture of your company’s chocolate chip cookies. Based on the baking chemistry of this new ingredient, there is reason to suspect that the new ingredient will make your cookies harder. Additionally, recent market research data has connected cookie hardness with...

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Technical Report: Replicated Difference and Preference Testing with Applications to Claims Support

Technical Report: Replicated Difference and Preference Testing with Applications to Claims Support

ABSTRACT As part of an effort to compare a new deodorant with a competitor’s product, 10 experienced judges evaluate the two products on the left and right arms of 30 subjects. In a counterbalanced design in which the two products are alternately placed on the left or right arms within a subject, each judge...

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