Technical Reports

Technical Report: Designing New Product Portfolios

Technical Report: Designing New Product Portfolios

ABSTRACT It is generally impossible to satisfy every consumer in a target group with a single product. Product portfolios are used to maximize overall consumer satisfaction. Just as one player cannot play every position on a basketball or soccer team, one product cannot play the role of a portfolio. The general problem of interest...

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Technical Report: Identifying Latent Segments

Technical Report: Identifying Latent Segments

ABSTRACT The success of an effort to introduce a new product or to reposition an existing one depends on knowledge of features of products that consumers want. One way of thinking about individual liking and preference differences is to assume that consumers agree that a set of product attributes are important to them, but...

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Technical Report: Motivations for Product Consumption

Technical Report: Motivations for Product Consumption

ABSTRACT There are numerous techniques used to assess consumers’ motivations for product consumption. It is quite common to obtain data from rated degrees of agreement with statements about possible motivators. The responses are then analyzed using statistical tools such as the analysis of variance and factor analysis. This technical report appears as: Ennis, D....

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Technical Report: Multivariate Difference Testing with Multiple Samples

Technical Report: Multivariate Difference Testing with Multiple Samples

ABSTRACT Variation in the manufacture of consumer products presents a challenge when investigating the suitability of process and formulation changes to a particular product. This issue is particularly relevant when investigating small sensory differences, like those involved in discrimination testing. In some cases, a product is best represented by several variants. The traditional discrimination...

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Technical Report: Discrimination Testing with Multiple Samples

Technical Report: Discrimination Testing with Multiple Samples

ABSTRACT The fact that variation occurs in the manufacture of consumer products leads to a challenging problem in difference testing. A product with a particular identity may be composed of different variants due to the fact that it is produced at different locations or on different machines. Difference testing designed to evaluate modifications of...

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Technical Report: Probabilistic Multidimensional Scaling

Technical Report: Probabilistic Multidimensional Scaling

ABSTRACT Solutions to many market research, product development and quality assurance problems require the use of various types of product maps. Sometimes it is of interest to know whether products differ without regard to liking and preference. For instance, product maps are used to guide quality assurance, cost reduction formulations, and ‘me-too’ product development....

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Technical Report: How Retasting Can Improve the Power of Product Testing

Technical Report: How Retasting Can Improve the Power of Product Testing

ABSTRACT The cost and timing of product testing depends on the size of the experiment. The power of a difference test depends on the number of judgments, a component of the experiment’s size. Power is the probability of correctly concluding that a difference exists given a significance level, sample size and specified difference. Efforts...

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Technical Report: Drivers of Liking® for Multiple Segments

Technical Report: Drivers of Liking® for Multiple Segments

ABSTRACT When considering product differences that drive consumer liking, it is helpful to imagine a space described by sensory characteristics in which each product has a location. In this space a person’s ideal product may be found, so that if we understood this space we could predict the person’s degree of liking for each...

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Technical Report: Population Thresholds

Technical Report: Population Thresholds

ABSTRACT A surprising number of applied sensory problems can be classified as threshold problems. For example, the time after application when an air freshener can no longer be detected is a time threshold. Similarly, the moment at which an off-note can be detected in a food product is a threshold. This information can be...

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Technical Report: Multivariate Sensory Quality Control

Technical Report: Multivariate Sensory Quality Control

ABSTRACT A consumer product, such as a cookie, produces multidimensional sensory effects when it is eaten. In order to produce sensorially consistent cookies, it is necessary to develop and use methods that account for multidimensionality. For instance, a consumer may notice how dry or how hard a cookie is or how much moisture it...

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