Technical Reports

Technical Report: Multivariate Difference Testing with Multiple Samples

Technical Report: Multivariate Difference Testing with Multiple Samples

ABSTRACT Variation in the manufacture of consumer products presents a challenge when investigating the suitability of process and formulation changes to a particular product. This issue is particularly relevant when investigating small sensory differences, like those involved in discrimination testing. In some cases, a product is best represented by several variants. The traditional discrimination...

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Technical Report: Discrimination Testing with Multiple Samples

Technical Report: Discrimination Testing with Multiple Samples

ABSTRACT The fact that variation occurs in the manufacture of consumer products leads to a challenging problem in difference testing. A product with a particular identity may be composed of different variants due to the fact that it is produced at different locations or on different machines. Difference testing designed to evaluate modifications of...

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Technical Report: Probabilistic Multidimensional Scaling

Technical Report: Probabilistic Multidimensional Scaling

ABSTRACT Solutions to many market research, product development and quality assurance problems require the use of various types of product maps. Sometimes it is of interest to know whether products differ without regard to liking and preference. For instance, product maps are used to guide quality assurance, cost reduction formulations, and ‘me-too’ product development....

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Technical Report: How Retasting Can Improve the Power of Product Testing

Technical Report: How Retasting Can Improve the Power of Product Testing

ABSTRACT The cost and timing of product testing depends on the size of the experiment. The power of a difference test depends on the number of judgments, a component of the experiment’s size. Power is the probability of correctly concluding that a difference exists given a significance level, sample size and specified difference. Efforts...

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Technical Report: Drivers of Liking® for Multiple Segments

Technical Report: Drivers of Liking® for Multiple Segments

ABSTRACT When considering product differences that drive consumer liking, it is helpful to imagine a space described by sensory characteristics in which each product has a location. In this space a person’s ideal product may be found, so that if we understood this space we could predict the person’s degree of liking for each...

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Technical Report: Population Thresholds

Technical Report: Population Thresholds

ABSTRACT A surprising number of applied sensory problems can be classified as threshold problems. For example, the time after application when an air freshener can no longer be detected is a time threshold. Similarly, the moment at which an off-note can be detected in a food product is a threshold. This information can be...

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Technical Report: Multivariate Sensory Quality Control

Technical Report: Multivariate Sensory Quality Control

ABSTRACT A consumer product, such as a cookie, produces multidimensional sensory effects when it is eaten. In order to produce sensorially consistent cookies, it is necessary to develop and use methods that account for multidimensionality. For instance, a consumer may notice how dry or how hard a cookie is or how much moisture it...

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Technical Report: Models for the A-Not A Method

Technical Report: Models for the A-Not A Method

ABSTRACT The A-Not A method is a well-known discrimination method used in sensory analysis and signal detection. The method typically involves either paired or sequential presentation of two products; on each trial the subject decides whether the product presented is A or Not A (A-). A is a product familiar to the subject, sometimes...

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Technical Report: Thurstonian Models for Intensity Ratings

Technical Report: Thurstonian Models for Intensity Ratings

ABSTRACT Products and concepts are often evaluated on rating scales to quantify degree of liking, level of purchase interest, intensity of an attribute, degree of difference or level of agreement with a statement. Rating scales are constructed in many different ways, but usually involve options labeled with numbers, words or symbols. In some cases...

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Technical Report: Multivariate Preference Mapping

Technical Report: Multivariate Preference Mapping

ABSTRACT In our Spring 1998 newsletter, we discussed a method for the analysis of liking data. The goal of this method was to discover attributes that drive liking. The method, called probabilistic unfolding, displays products and ideals as distributions. Preference data can also be unfolded to provide insights into ideal product characteristics, and can...

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