Technical Reports

Technical Report: Relating Expert and Consumer Sensitivities

Technical Report: Relating Expert and Consumer Sensitivities

ABSTRACT It is often necessary to conduct expensive, time-consuming experiments in order to obtain reliable information on product characteristics from consumer samples. This report investigates reducing product testing costs by improving measurement sensitivity. In some cases, such as when estimating sensory intensity differences, smaller samples could be used if sensitivity could be increased. This...

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Technical Report: Competitive Strategies in Product Portfolio Design

Technical Report: Competitive Strategies in Product Portfolio Design

ABSTRACT In an earlier technical report1, we discussed product portfolio optimization. In that report, products were placed: a) In the absence of competition and existing brands, b) in the presence of competition, and c) in the presence of competition while minimizing cannibalization of existing brands. The last two cases involved optimizing the probability of...

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Technical Report: Just About Right Scales

Technical Report: Just About Right Scales

ABSTRACT When Goldilocks considered eating the bears’ porridge, she found one "too hot", one "too cold", and one "just right". It is not possible to know from this information whether Goldilocks perceived the porridges to be hot or cold in intensity; we just have relative information about the three porridges. Relative ratings such as...

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Technical Report: Designing New Product Portfolios

Technical Report: Designing New Product Portfolios

ABSTRACT It is generally impossible to satisfy every consumer in a target group with a single product. Product portfolios are used to maximize overall consumer satisfaction. Just as one player cannot play every position on a basketball or soccer team, one product cannot play the role of a portfolio. The general problem of interest...

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Technical Report: Identifying Latent Segments

Technical Report: Identifying Latent Segments

ABSTRACT The success of an effort to introduce a new product or to reposition an existing one depends on knowledge of features of products that consumers want. One way of thinking about individual liking and preference differences is to assume that consumers agree that a set of product attributes are important to them, but...

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Technical Report: Motivations for Product Consumption

Technical Report: Motivations for Product Consumption

ABSTRACT There are numerous techniques used to assess consumers’ motivations for product consumption. It is quite common to obtain data from rated degrees of agreement with statements about possible motivators. The responses are then analyzed using statistical tools such as the analysis of variance and factor analysis. This technical report appears as: Ennis, D....

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Technical Report: Multivariate Difference Testing with Multiple Samples

Technical Report: Multivariate Difference Testing with Multiple Samples

ABSTRACT Variation in the manufacture of consumer products presents a challenge when investigating the suitability of process and formulation changes to a particular product. This issue is particularly relevant when investigating small sensory differences, like those involved in discrimination testing. In some cases, a product is best represented by several variants. The traditional discrimination...

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Technical Report: Discrimination Testing with Multiple Samples

Technical Report: Discrimination Testing with Multiple Samples

ABSTRACT The fact that variation occurs in the manufacture of consumer products leads to a challenging problem in difference testing. A product with a particular identity may be composed of different variants due to the fact that it is produced at different locations or on different machines. Difference testing designed to evaluate modifications of...

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Technical Report: Probabilistic Multidimensional Scaling

Technical Report: Probabilistic Multidimensional Scaling

ABSTRACT Solutions to many market research, product development and quality assurance problems require the use of various types of product maps. Sometimes it is of interest to know whether products differ without regard to liking and preference. For instance, product maps are used to guide quality assurance, cost reduction formulations, and ‘me-too’ product development....

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Technical Report: How Retasting Can Improve the Power of Product Testing

Technical Report: How Retasting Can Improve the Power of Product Testing

ABSTRACT The cost and timing of product testing depends on the size of the experiment. The power of a difference test depends on the number of judgments, a component of the experiment’s size. Power is the probability of correctly concluding that a difference exists given a significance level, sample size and specified difference. Efforts...

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