Technical Reports

Technical Report: Parity Claims

Technical Report: Parity Claims

ABSTRACT The recently reissued ASTM Claims Guide provides a useful classification of types of claims and recommendations concerning appropriate product testing. Figure 1 is a schematic summary of the claims discussed in that document. There are comparative and non-comparative claims. The comparative group includes superiority and parity claims. The guide separates parity claims into...

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Technical Report: Indices of Sensory Difference: R-Index and d’

Technical Report: Indices of Sensory Difference: R-Index and d’

ABSTRACT Discrimination methodologies are used to investigate similarities and differences among variants of manufactured products. Applications typically involve cost savings, storage and product improvements. A researcher often requires more information than a simple test of significance which can be readily changed by simply altering the sample size used. In many cases, estimation of the...

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Technical Report: Making Ratio Statements about Product Improvements

Technical Report: Making Ratio Statements about Product Improvements

ABSTRACT When making product comparisons, it is sometimes useful to be able to substantiate ratio statements. The purpose of this report is to consider how this might be accomplished using standard rating and difference testing methods. In everyday experience, such as finding out what the time or temperature is, we often use interval scales. When...

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Technical Report: Identifying Emerging Opportunities in Consumer Markets

Technical Report: Identifying Emerging Opportunities in Consumer Markets

ABSTRACT To achieve and maintain market dominance, it is necessary to see the market from the consumers’ perspective, to track how that market changes over time, and to understand how you and your competitors are competing for limited consumer interest. In this report, you will observe an interaction between competitors vying for share in...

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Technical Report: Alternative Methods for Understanding Preference

Technical Report: Alternative Methods for Understanding Preference

ABSTRACT In our summer 1999 newsletter, we discussed a method for the analysis of preference data. The goal of that method, called Multivariate Preference Mapping, was to show how preference data can be used to derive maps of products, ideals and their variances so that the basis for preference decisions could be understood. In...

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Technical Report: Relative Scales and DifferenceTesting Norms

Technical Report: Relative Scales and DifferenceTesting Norms

ABSTRACT Appropriate treatment of “no difference” responses in paired preference and difference testing is a persistent issue in product testing. Different approaches involving their inclusion or omission from subsequent testing using the binomial distribution have been proposed. In 1980, paired testing of four blind labeled brands of a major consumer products company was conducted...

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Technical Report: Analytic Approaches to Accounting for Individual Ideal Points

Technical Report: Analytic Approaches to Accounting for Individual Ideal Points

ABSTRACT When Goldilocks made her food and mattress choices, she exhibited a common preference for items of moderate intensity. Instead of the hottest or coldest, softest or hardest, she chose the intermediate points. Even in the case of her furniture choice where she chose the smallest chair, one could easily construct a sufficiently small...

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Technical Report: Measuring Product Performance / Image Tradeoffs

Technical Report: Measuring Product Performance / Image Tradeoffs

ABSTRACT We send our children to less than ideal schools, we drive less than optimal cars (for longer than we care to admit), we can always think of a neighborhood that we would prefer to live in, and we consume foods that, based purely on their sensory effects, we would prefer to forego. It...

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Technical Report: From Ranks to Intensities

Technical Report: From Ranks to Intensities

ABSTRACT In a classic voting problem, 24 people are asked to choose among three restaurants – one specializing in steak, one in Thai food, and one vegetarian. Nine vote for steak, eight for Thai and seven for vegetarian. The vegetarians would much prefer Thai to steak and the Thai choosers would prefer vegetarian to...

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Technical Report: Product-Concept Fits

Technical Report: Product-Concept Fits

ABSTRACT The extent to which a product matches a concept plays a critical role in the success of new product introductions. For instance, if a new fragrance is to be introduced under a brand name with supporting imagery, it would be useful to know whether the fragrance itself is compatible with the concept. A...

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