Technical Reports

Technical Report: Why Proportion of Discriminators is Method Specific

Technical Report: Why Proportion of Discriminators is Method Specific

ABSTRACT “If we make this change only 10% of our consumers will be able to detect it”, may be a very appealing statement to managers in consumer products companies. These managers are often faced with the need to make product changes and substitutions to change ingredients, lower costs, switch to more stable sources of...

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Technical Report: Do Consumers have Multiple Ideals Depending on Usage Occasions?

Technical Report: Do Consumers have Multiple Ideals Depending on Usage Occasions?

ABSTRACT Many products have multiple uses. Some products in a category may be more suitable for particular uses than other products in the same category. One way of looking at this problem is to consider that each consumer has multiple ideal points, one for each type of usage occasion and it would be useful...

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Technical Report: Discovering Time-Dependent Trends

Technical Report: Discovering Time-Dependent Trends

ABSTRACT Product changes in manufacturing and storage are often time-dependent. Sometimes these changes are linear, sometimes cyclical and at other times chaotic. It is often not obvious that a time-dependent change is in fact occurring in some variable of interest. In this report we discuss methods for studying whether a trend exists and, if...

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Technical Report: Parity Claims

Technical Report: Parity Claims

ABSTRACT The recently reissued ASTM Claims Guide provides a useful classification of types of claims and recommendations concerning appropriate product testing. Figure 1 is a schematic summary of the claims discussed in that document. There are comparative and non-comparative claims. The comparative group includes superiority and parity claims. The guide separates parity claims into...

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Technical Report: Indices of Sensory Difference: R-Index and d’

Technical Report: Indices of Sensory Difference: R-Index and d’

ABSTRACT Discrimination methodologies are used to investigate similarities and differences among variants of manufactured products. Applications typically involve cost savings, storage and product improvements. A researcher often requires more information than a simple test of significance which can be readily changed by simply altering the sample size used. In many cases, estimation of the...

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Technical Report: Making Ratio Statements about Product Improvements

Technical Report: Making Ratio Statements about Product Improvements

ABSTRACT When making product comparisons, it is sometimes useful to be able to substantiate ratio statements. The purpose of this report is to consider how this might be accomplished using standard rating and difference testing methods. In everyday experience, such as finding out what the time or temperature is, we often use interval scales. When...

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Technical Report: Identifying Emerging Opportunities in Consumer Markets

Technical Report: Identifying Emerging Opportunities in Consumer Markets

ABSTRACT To achieve and maintain market dominance, it is necessary to see the market from the consumers’ perspective, to track how that market changes over time, and to understand how you and your competitors are competing for limited consumer interest. In this report, you will observe an interaction between competitors vying for share in...

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Technical Report: Alternative Methods for Understanding Preference

Technical Report: Alternative Methods for Understanding Preference

ABSTRACT In our summer 1999 newsletter, we discussed a method for the analysis of preference data. The goal of that method, called Multivariate Preference Mapping, was to show how preference data can be used to derive maps of products, ideals and their variances so that the basis for preference decisions could be understood. In...

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Technical Report: Relative Scales and DifferenceTesting Norms

Technical Report: Relative Scales and DifferenceTesting Norms

ABSTRACT Appropriate treatment of “no difference” responses in paired preference and difference testing is a persistent issue in product testing. Different approaches involving their inclusion or omission from subsequent testing using the binomial distribution have been proposed. In 1980, paired testing of four blind labeled brands of a major consumer products company was conducted...

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Technical Report: Analytic Approaches to Accounting for Individual Ideal Points

Technical Report: Analytic Approaches to Accounting for Individual Ideal Points

ABSTRACT When Goldilocks made her food and mattress choices, she exhibited a common preference for items of moderate intensity. Instead of the hottest or coldest, softest or hardest, she chose the intermediate points. Even in the case of her furniture choice where she chose the smallest chair, one could easily construct a sufficiently small...

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