Technical Reports

Technical Report: How to Set Identicality Norms for No Preference Data

Technical Report: How to Set Identicality Norms for No Preference Data

ABSTRACT Expectations, or norms, are of crucial importance in science as they allow researchers to interpret results within a larger theoretical framework. For example, in 1866 Gregor Mendel published his now famous Mendelian ratio, which provided expected results that were instrumental in the early development of genetics. The importance of norms is just as...

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Technical Report: Action Standards in a Successful Discrimination Program

Technical Report: Action Standards in a Successful Discrimination Program

ABSTRACT Sensory quality assurance is a critical activity in the management of consumer product companies. Cost-savings initiatives, ingredient changes, and modifications to comply with new regulations or dietary changes lead to a need for product sensory measurement. Discrimination testing involves the use of a specific class of sensory evaluation methods. Such procedures are often...

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Technical Report: How to Account for “No Difference/Preference” Counts

Technical Report: How to Account for “No Difference/Preference” Counts

ABSTRACT Data obtained from many forced choice procedures such as the 2- and 3-alternative forced choice (2-AFC and 3-AFC), the duo-trio and the triangular methods, are often tested using the binomial distribution. In some applications of either difference or preference testing it is desirable to include a no difference or no preference option. One...

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Technical Report: Portfolio Optimization Based on First Choice

Technical Report: Portfolio Optimization Based on First Choice

ABSTRACT First choice, sometimes called discrete choice, involves the selection of an item from a number of mutually exclusive items. This means that when a consumer chooses an item, this choice necessarily implies that all other items are rejected. There are numerous models to account for first choice and often these models predict the...

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Technical Report: Optimum Product Selection for a Drivers of Liking® Project

Technical Report: Optimum Product Selection for a Drivers of Liking® Project

ABSTRACT A project team selecting products for a category appraisal must contend with a number of competing objectives. One of these objectives is to obtain information on the performance of its own products and those of its competitors. This usually leads to extensive discussion and debate among the product development and market research members...

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Technical Report: Unfolding Liking using Landscape Segmentation Analysis® and Internal Preference Mapping

Technical Report: Unfolding Liking using Landscape Segmentation Analysis® and Internal Preference Mapping

ABSTRACT A major objective for any company selling products or services is to uncover the characteristics that drive consumer acceptability. Every year, companies across the world spend a substantial portion of their research budgets for this purpose. Consumer products companies with this information have a significant competitive advantage since specific direction can be given...

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Technical Report: Scaling First-Last, MaxDiff and Best-Worst Data

Technical Report: Scaling First-Last, MaxDiff and Best-Worst Data

ABSTRACT Among market research practitioners, there has recently been interest in scaling product or category characteristics (such as possible benefits) based on responses indicating the items with the greatest and least magnitude among a subset of possible items. The basis for this choice could be liking, purchase interest, importance or even a sensory characteristic...

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Technical Report: Multiplicative versus Ratio Comparisons

Technical Report: Multiplicative versus Ratio Comparisons

ABSTRACT Claims such as “Our product whitens teeth twice as well as product X!” abound in advertising. Such claims have traditionally been viewed as statements regarding ratios of product performances and have been treated accordingly. In previous technical reports, we have both reviewed and extended traditional ratio based statistical methods used to evaluate such...

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Technical Report: Brand Effects on the Landscape of Consumer Experience

Technical Report: Brand Effects on the Landscape of Consumer Experience

ABSTRACT In previous reports we have discussed how to analyze consumer motivations data.  Such data typically come from studies in which consumers evaluate a series of degree of agreement statements about possible motivators. For example, if the product is a cranberry juice drink the motivation statements might include measures concerning taste and odor while...

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Technical Report: New Developments in Equivalence Testing

Technical Report: New Developments in Equivalence Testing

ABSTRACT Equivalence is a term used to describe a condition in which two items differ by less than some predetermined amount. Similar terms include bioequivalence, parity, equality and similarity. Bioequivalence is used in the context of drug effect differences while the term parity is often used in the context of consumer product differences. Equality...

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