Technical Reports

Technical Report: Confidence Intervals and Consumer Relevance

Technical Report: Confidence Intervals and Consumer Relevance

ABSTRACT Difference testing methods such as the Triangle, Duo-Trio, Tetrad, and 2-Alternative Forced Choice (2–AFC) generate choice counts or numbers of correct responses that are often analyzed statistically as binomial variables. This analysis approach provides the basis for hypothesis tests for difference testing methods and for commonly available tables for that purpose. Since any...

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Technical Report: Rotations in Product Tests and Surveys

Technical Report: Rotations in Product Tests and Surveys

ABSTRACT In this report we consider how to balance item positions, item sequences, and the spread of these sequences within rotations. The term “sequence” will be used to mean a pair of items occurring one after the other. The term “item” refers to a product, concept, or a question in a survey. Methods to...

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Technical Report: How to Find Optimal Combinations of Brand Components

Technical Report: How to Find Optimal Combinations  of Brand Components

ABSTRACT Consumer products are often viewed as combinations of components drawn from categories such as features, benefits, and imageries. Successful marketing of brands depends on skill in choosing these combinations. The staggering number of combinations that can result from even a relatively small number of components is not always appreciated. For example, with only...

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Technical Report: How to Diagnose the Need for 3D Unfolding

Technical Report: How to Diagnose the Need for 3D Unfolding

ABSTRACT Multivariate mapping techniques are frequently and commonly used to visualize the large amount of data generated in sensory and consumer testing experiments. Since it is desirable to summarize data using as simple a model as possible, multidimensional solutions that capture the relevant information with fewer dimensions are usually prioritized. Moreover, it is less...

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Technical Report: Transitioning from Proportion of Discriminators to Thurstonian Delta

Technical Report: Transitioning from Proportion of Discriminators to Thurstonian Delta

ABSTRACT In a previous technical report we discussed a commonly used measure of sensory difference, the proportion of discriminators (Pd), and explained that this measure is method specific. We concluded that: “The concept of the proportion of discriminators is intuitive and appealing. Unfortunately, it is also method-specific and one can achieve very different values using different methods,...

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Technical Report: When Are Two Products Close Enough to be Equivalent?

Technical Report: When Are Two Products Close Enough to be Equivalent?

ABSTRACT A persistent dilemma in comparing products is to know when the difference between them becomes consumer relevant. Since the probability that any two products are exactly the same is zero, rejecting the null hypothesis that they are identical may not be that informative; an analysis will always result in such rejection provided there...

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Technical Report: Proper Task Instructions and the Two-out-of-Five Test

Technical Report: Proper Task Instructions and the Two-out-of-Five Test

ABSTRACT Difference tests continue to play a prominent role as businesses investigate the sensory effects of ingredient or process changes. Even so, the importance of correct instructions in these tests is not always appreciated- incorrect instructions can reduce the ability of a test to detect real differences. The effect of instructions on the outcome of sensory difference testing was...

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Technical Report: Efficient Representation of Pairwise Sensory Information

Technical Report: Efficient Representation of Pairwise Sensory Information

ABSTRACT Pairwise comparisons appear throughout sensory science – two products can be compared for statistical difference, equivalence, compatibility, and so on. When many products are compared, there can be hundreds of these comparisons. And if these comparisons occur on each of a large number of attributes, the total number of comparisons can be in...

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Technical Report: Deciphering the Language of Emotions to Develop an Emotion Lexicon

Technical Report: Deciphering the Language of Emotions to Develop an Emotion Lexicon

ABSTRACT Recently, the investigation of consumer emotional experiences has been an area of active research1,2. Understanding these experiences can provide insights that go beyond those provided by traditional liking ratings and preference responses. One challenge that can stand between researchers and the use of this new type of data is the choice of a...

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Technical Report: Reducing Costs with Tetrad Testing

Technical Report: Reducing Costs with Tetrad Testing

ABSTRACT The Triangle test is one of the most popular discrimination methodologies used in consumer products companies. Beginning in 1941, Joseph E. Seagram and Sons were the first to employ it – since then it has been used in a variety of applications including product discrimination testing and panelist selection. An advantage of the...

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