Technical Reports

Technical Report: Deciphering the Language of Emotions to Develop an Emotion Lexicon

Technical Report: Deciphering the Language of Emotions to Develop an Emotion Lexicon

ABSTRACT Recently, the investigation of consumer emotional experiences has been an area of active research1,2. Understanding these experiences can provide insights that go beyond those provided by traditional liking ratings and preference responses. One challenge that can stand between researchers and the use of this new type of data is the choice of a...

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Technical Report: Reducing Costs with Tetrad Testing

Technical Report: Reducing Costs with Tetrad Testing

ABSTRACT The Triangle test is one of the most popular discrimination methodologies used in consumer products companies. Beginning in 1941, Joseph E. Seagram and Sons were the first to employ it – since then it has been used in a variety of applications including product discrimination testing and panelist selection. An advantage of the...

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Technical Report: Interpreting Applicability Scores

Technical Report: Interpreting Applicability Scores

ABSTRACT “Check-all-that-apply” (CATA) lists are a popular tool in product tests1,2,3. In a typical test, consumers respond to a series of statements and mark those statements that apply to the product of interest. An advantage of CATA testing is that it provides an opportunity to obtain information from consumers that would be difficult in...

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Technical Report: Illuminating Product by Demographic Interactions

Technical Report: Illuminating Product by Demographic Interactions

ABSTRACT It is virtually a fundamental law of nature that people have idiosyncratic likes and dislikes. They may cluster into groups or segments of similar-minded individuals, but it is often difficult to determine what causes segments to exist. In a typical consumer product test, respondents are usually screened and profiled according to a full...

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Technical Report: From Many to Few: A Graph Theoretic Screening Tool for Product Developers

Technical Report: From Many to Few: A Graph Theoretic Screening Tool for Product Developers

ABSTRACT Michelangelo reportedly carved his many masterpieces by removing all that was irrelevant to his final goal. While this approach clearly benefited the artist, it can also serve the brand and product developer in search of best combinations of items. Whether these items are juices in a mixed-juice drink box, flavor combinations for savory...

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Technical Report: How to Set Identicality Norms for No Preference Data

Technical Report: How to Set Identicality Norms for No Preference Data

ABSTRACT Expectations, or norms, are of crucial importance in science as they allow researchers to interpret results within a larger theoretical framework. For example, in 1866 Gregor Mendel published his now famous Mendelian ratio, which provided expected results that were instrumental in the early development of genetics. The importance of norms is just as...

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Technical Report: Action Standards in a Successful Discrimination Program

Technical Report: Action Standards in a Successful Discrimination Program

ABSTRACT Sensory quality assurance is a critical activity in the management of consumer product companies. Cost-savings initiatives, ingredient changes, and modifications to comply with new regulations or dietary changes lead to a need for product sensory measurement. Discrimination testing involves the use of a specific class of sensory evaluation methods. Such procedures are often...

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Technical Report: How to Account for “No Difference/Preference” Counts

Technical Report: How to Account for “No Difference/Preference” Counts

ABSTRACT Data obtained from many forced choice procedures such as the 2- and 3-alternative forced choice (2-AFC and 3-AFC), the duo-trio and the triangular methods, are often tested using the binomial distribution. In some applications of either difference or preference testing it is desirable to include a no difference or no preference option. One...

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Technical Report: Portfolio Optimization Based on First Choice

Technical Report: Portfolio Optimization Based on First Choice

ABSTRACT First choice, sometimes called discrete choice, involves the selection of an item from a number of mutually exclusive items. This means that when a consumer chooses an item, this choice necessarily implies that all other items are rejected. There are numerous models to account for first choice and often these models predict the...

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Technical Report: Optimum Product Selection for a Drivers of Liking® Project

Technical Report: Optimum Product Selection for a Drivers of Liking® Project

ABSTRACT A project team selecting products for a category appraisal must contend with a number of competing objectives. One of these objectives is to obtain information on the performance of its own products and those of its competitors. This usually leads to extensive discussion and debate among the product development and market research members...

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