Superiority, Unsurpassed, Equivalence and Multiplicative Claims and their Paradoxes

Dr. Daniel M. Ennis
President
The Institute for Perception

An overview of statistical issues in substantiating different types of advertising claims is provided. Current and alternative approaches to allocating the no difference/preference counts in paired testing will be discussed with respect to power. Some paradoxical results due to different standards used to test for superiority, unsurpassed and equivalence claims are discussed. The lack of and need for multiplicative claim statistics in the E1958 ASTM Standard Guide for Sensory Claim Substantiation is mentioned with a recommendation on how to make multiplicative and other count-based claims.